Which Of The Following Explanations Best Describes The Program

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Critical period hypothesis Wikipedia. The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age. The hypothesis claims that there is an ideal time window to acquire language in a linguistically rich environment, after which further language acquisition becomes much more difficult and effortful. The critical period hypothesis states that the first few years of life is the crucial time in which an individual can acquire a first language if presented with adequate stimuli. If language input does not occur until after this time, the individual will never achieve a full command of languageespecially grammatical systems. The evidence for such a period is limited, and support stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development, but nonetheless is widely accepted. The nature of such a critical period, however, has been one of the most fiercely debated issues in psycholinguistics and cognitive science in general for decades. Some writers have suggested a sensitive or optimal period rather than a critical one others dispute the causes physical maturation, cognitive factors. The duration of the period also varies greatly in different accounts. In second language acquisition, the strongest empirical evidence for the critical period hypothesis is in the study of accent, where most older learners do not reach a native like level. However, under certain conditions, native like accent has been observed, suggesting that accent is affected by multiple factors, such as identity and motivation, rather than a critical period biological constraint. HistoryeditThe critical period hypothesis was first proposed by Montreal neurologist Wilder Penfield and co author Lamar Roberts in their 1. Which Of The Following Explanations Best Describes The Program' title='Which Of The Following Explanations Best Describes The Program' />Which Of The Following Explanations Best Describes The ProgramSpeech and Brain Mechanisms, and was popularized by Eric Lenneberg in 1. Biological Foundations of Language. Lennebergs critical period hypothesis states that there are maturational constraints on the time a first language can be acquired. First language acquisition relies on neuroplasticity. If language acquisition does not occur by puberty, some aspects of language can be learned but full mastery cannot be achieved. Support for the critical period theory stems largely from theoretical arguments and analogies to other critical periods in biology such as visual development. Strictly speaking, the experimentally verified critical period relates to a time span during which damage to the development of the visual system can occur, for example if animals are deprived of the necessary binocular input for developing stereopsis. It has however been considered likely, and has in many cases been flatly presented as fact, that experimental evidence would point to a comparable critical period also for recovery of such development and treatment however this is a hypothesis. Recently, doubts have arisen concerning the validity of this critical period hypothesis with regard to visual development, in particular since the time it became known that neuroscientist Susan R. Barry and others have achieved stereopsis as adults, long after the supposed critical period for acquiring this skill. Cristor Atlas 200 Hd Wifi on this page. Recently, it has been suggested that if a critical period does exist, it may be due at least partially to the delayed development of the prefrontal cortex in human children. Researchers have suggested that delayed development of the prefrontal cortex and an associated delay in the development of cognitive control may facilitate convention learning, allowing young children to learn language far more easily than cognitively mature adults and older children. This pattern of prefrontal development is unique to humans among similar mammalian and primate species, and may explain why humansand not chimpanzeesare so adept at learning language. Second language acquisitioneditThe theory has often been extended to a critical period for second language acquisition SLA, although this is much less widely accepted. Certainly, older learners of a second language rarely achieve the native like fluency that younger learners display, despite often progressing faster than children in the initial stages. David Singleton states that in learning a second language, younger better in the long run, but points out that there are many exceptions, noting that five percent of adult bilinguals master a second language even though they begin learning it when they are well into adulthoodlong after any critical period has presumably come to a close. While the window for learning a second language never completely closes, certain linguistic aspects appear to be more affected by the age of the learner than others. For example, adult second language learners nearly always retain an immediately identifiable foreign accent, including some who display perfect grammar. A possible explanation for why this foreign accent remains is that pronunciation, or phonology, is susceptible to the critical period. The pronunciation of speech sounds relies on neuromuscular function. Adults learning a new language are unlikely to attain a convincing native accent since they are past the prime age of learning new neuromuscular functions, and therefore pronunciations. Writers have suggested a younger critical age for learning phonology than for morphemes and syntax. Singleton Lengyel 1. The attrition of procedural memory with age results in the increased use of declarative memory to learn new languages, which is an entirely different process from L1 first language learning. The plasticity of procedural memory is argued to decline after the age of 5. The attrition of procedural memory plasticity inhibits the ability of an L2 user to speak their second language automatically. It can still take conscious effort even if they are exposed to the second language as early as age 3. This effort is observed by measuring brain activity. L2 users that are exposed to their second language at an early age and are everyday users show lower levels of brain activity when using their L1 than when using their L2. This suggests that additional resources are recruited when speaking their L2 and it is therefore a more strenuous process. Usaha Sapi Potong Pdf on this page. The critical period hypothesis in SLA follows a use it then lose it approach, which dictates that as a person ages, excess neural circuitry used during L1 learning is essentially broken down. If these neural structures remained intact they would cost unnecessary metabolic energy to maintain. The structures necessary for L1 use are kept. On the other hand, a second use it or lose it approach dictates that if an L2 user begins to learn at an early age and continues on through his life, then his language learning circuitry should remain active. This approach is also called the exercise hypothesis. There is much debate over the timing of the critical period with respect to SLA, with estimates ranging between 2 and 1. These estimates tend to vary depending on what component of the language learning process a researcher considers. For instance, if an SLA researcher is studying L2 phonological development, they will likely conclude that the critical period ends at around age 3. If another SLA researcher is studying L2 syntactical development, they may conclude that the critical period ends at a much later age.